Explain the Various measures taken by government to enhance the income of farmers ? (200 Words)
There are various measures taken by the Government to enhance the income of farmers which includes various programmes and policy intitaitve:-
(i) Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme by which the farmers can know the major and minor nutrients available in their soils which will ensure judicious use of fertiliser application and reduce cost of inputs and improve soil fertility.
(ii) Neem Coated Urea is being promoted to regulate use of urea, enhance its availability to the crop and reduce cost of fertilizer application. The entire quantity of domestically manufactured and imported urea is now neem coated.
(iii) Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) is being implemented with a view to promote organic farming in the country. This will improve soil health and organic matter content and increase net income of the farmer so as to realise premium prices.
(iv) The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) is being implemented to expand cultivated area with assured irrigation, reduce wastage of water and improve water use efficiency.
(v) The National Agriculture Market scheme (e-NAM) was launched on 14.04.2016. The Scheme envisages initiation of e-marketing platform at national level and will support creation of infrastructure to enable e-marketing in 585 regulated markets across the country by March 2018. So far, 455 markets of 13 States have been integrated with e-NAM. This innovative market process evisages better price discovery, transparency and competition to enable farmers to get improved remuneration for their produce and move towards ‘One Nation One Market’.
(vi) Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) is being implemented from Kharif 2016 season and is available to the farmers at low rates of premium. This scheme would provide insurance cover for all stages of the crop cycle including post-harvest risks in specified instances.
(vii) The Government provides interest subvention of 3% on short-term crop loans up to Rs.3.00 lakh. Presently, loan is available to farmers at an interest rate of 7% per annum, which gets reduced to 4% on prompt repayment.
Further, under Interest Subvention Scheme 2016-17, in order to provide relief to the farmers on occurrence of natural calamities, the interest subvention of 2% shall continue to be available to banks for the first year on the restructured amount.
(viii) Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) enables Governments to further implement the scheme in the State as per its requirement in areas which requires focused attention for increasing production and productivity in the State. The States have been provided flexibility and autonomy for selection, planning approval and execution of projects/programs under the scheme as per their need, priorities and agro-climate requirements.
(ix) Under National Food Security Mission (NFSM), a Centrally Sponsored scheme, NFSM-Pulses is being implemented in 638 districts of 29 States, NFSM-Rice in 194 districts of 25 States, NFSM-Wheat in 126 district of 11 States and NFSM-Coarse Cereals is being implemented in 265 districts of 28 States of the country for increasing the production and productivity of Rice, wheat, pulses and coarse cereal crops.
Under NFSM, assistance is provided to farmers for distribution of Seeds (HYVs/Hybrids), production of seeds (only in pulses), INM and IPM techniques, resource conservation technologies/tools/farm mechanization, efficient water application tools, cropping system based trainings to farmers and also assistance for value addition.
(x) National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP) programme, is being implemented since 2014-15. The objective of NMOOP is to increase production and productivity of oilseeds for meeting the domestic requirement of vegetable oil. The various interventions of this mission are implemented through the State Department of Agriculture/Horticulture.
(xi) Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, is being implemented w.e.f. 2014-15, for holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetable, root and tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo.
The Mission subsumes National Horticulture Mission (NHM), Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States (HMNEH), National Horticulture Board (NHB), Coconut Development Board (CDB) and Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH), Nagaland. All States and UTs are covered under MIDH.