USHUS is an integrated sonar system

USHUS Sonar  is an integrated sonar system developed by the Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), India, for use in submarines of the Indian Navy.

Highlights of USHUS Sonar

It is primarily designed to be used in Sindhughosh class submarines, though it is reported to be fitted in the Arihant-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines as well. USHUS is reported to be superior to its Russian equivalents.

The submarine-sonar, project USHUS being productionised based on transfer-of-technology (TOT) from NPOL by concurrent engineering approach is making rapid progress at BEL, Bangalore.

The order has been placed on production agency by Navy and NPOL is providing technical consultancy and support. One system is being installed and integrated in Russia and the other system is on-board Indian submarines.

Design and Description

USHUS is used for detecting and tracking enemy submarines, surface vessels and torpedoes and can be used for underwater communication and avoiding obstacles.

The sonar can work in both active and passive mode, and is capable of interception and underwater communication.

It can detect both surface ships and submarines at a range of a few kilometers. The team developing the sonar was awarded the Agni Award for self-reliance by the Indian Prime Minister in May 2007.


The production of the sonar is done by Bharat Electronics (BEL) at its Bangalore unit after transfer of technology from NPOL. NPOL continues to provide technical consultancy and support.

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The Indian Ministry of Defence signed a contract worth Rs 167 crore with BEL for the delivery of the sonars for four Kilo-class submarines between 2003 and 2007.

Initially one sonar system was installed and integrated in Russia and other system was installed on board an Indian submarine

Current Status

Indian Nuclear Submarine Project starting with INS Arihant (ATV-1) includes advanced USHUS sonar system.

By April 2013, five Sindhughosh class submarines of the navy were upgraded to include the USHUS system. They are, in order of their upgrade, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindugosh, Sinduvijay and Sindhurakshak.

INS Sindhukirti was upgraded in India at Hindustan Shipyard. The remaining submarines of the class are expected to follow


Ushus-II sonar suites is a package of several sonars, which include passive sonar, active sonar, intercept sonar, obstacle avoidance sonar and underwater telephony

USHUS-2 is an integrated submarine sonar suite, which is a state-of-the-art upgrade of the existing sonar USHUS fitted on the Russian-origin Kilo class submarines operated by the Navy.
USHUS-2 will replace the remaining Russian sonars on Kilo class, also called Sindhughosh class, of submarines.

Highlights of USHUS -II

The sonars are the eyes and ears of a submarine. The primary purpose of the sonar is to detect, localise and attack enemy warships and submarines.  It is also essential for safe navigation.
USHUS-2 is essentially a suite of multiple sensors for passive and active detection, which collates different characteristics of the same target and provides data for engaging the target.
The constituent sonars in the suite include passive sonar, active sonar, intercept sonar, obstacle avoidance sonar and underwater telephony. The sonar suite incorporates advanced signal processing techniques and state-of-the-art hardware platforms.
The system provides advanced classification features, contact motion analysis and automatic torpedo detection capabilities. It has been entirely manufactured by Indian industry.
The indigenously-developed Directing Gear (DG) is a ship-borne electro-mechanical system that rotates the heavy sonar array at controlled speeds and positions it to a specified angle for in-situ calibration and health monitoring.
The single flange mounting design of the DG minimizes the mechanical interface with the ship structure and consequent structural changes in the ship while replacing the existing foreign DG with the indigenous one.
The Indian Navy installed the first system on board the frigate INS Brahmaputra and has since ordered 10 more such systems.
Raja Raja Cholan
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Trainer & Mentor for aspirants preparing for civil service examination

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