As per the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Report, published by World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the sanitation coverage in rural areas of the country is 33% approximately as of the year 2010. Census 2011 also reported sanitation coverage of 32.67% in the rural areas.
To eliminate the practice of open defecation, to promote the use of toilets and to accelerate the progress of sanitation in rural areas of country, Government of India took the major initiative and has designed a paradigm shift in Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which is now called the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), in the XIIth Five Year Plan. The objective of NBA is to achieve sustainable behavior change with provision of sanitary facilities in entire communities in a phased, saturation mode with “Nirmal Grams’ as outcomes. The new strategy is to transform rural India into ‘Nirmal Bharat’ by adopting community saturation approach.
Under NBA, the provision of enhanced incentive for individual household latrine units has been made and the same has been widened to cover all APL households who belong to SCs, STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homesteads, physically challenged and women headed households along-with all BPL households w.e.f 01.04.2012.
Government of India has instructed the States/UTs to conduct fresh baseline surveys and to submit revised Project Implementation Plans (PIPs) for their state based on modified provisions of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan. Apart from this, States/UTs have been asked to include in the baseline survey the details of dysfunctional toilets also.