Reliable estimates of employment and unemployment are obtained through quinquennial labour force surveys conducted by National Sample Survey Office. Last such survey was conducted during 2009-10. As per the three most recent quinquennial labour force surveys on employment and unemployment, estimated employment in the country on usual status basis was 397.0 million in 1999-2000, 459.10 million in 2004-05 and 465.48 million in 2009-10.
Second Annual Employment and Unemployment Survey (2011-12) has been conducted by Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. The Report of this Survey has been released on 19th July 2012.
The details and outcome of the results of the survey are annexed.
Statement showing details and outcome of the Second Annual Employment and Unemployment Survey 2011-12.
• During the survey data has been collected from a sample of 1,28,298 households, out of which 81,430 households are in the rural sector and the remaining 46,868 households in the urban sector.
• A Fixed reference period of Agriculture Year 2010-11 i.e. July, 2010 to June 2011 is used to derive the estimates based on usual status approach.
• The labour force estimates are derived for the persons of age 15 years and above,
• The Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) is estimated to be 52.9 per cent at All India level.
• In the rural sector, the LFPR is estimated to be 54.8 per cent as compared to 47.2 per cent in the urban sector.
• Female LFPR is significantly lower as compared to male LFPR. At all India level, female LFPR is estimated to be 25.4 per cent as compared to 77.4 per cent in male category.
• At All India level, the Worker Population Ratio (WPR) is estimated to be 50.8 per cent. In rural areas, the WPR is estimated to be 52.9 per cent as compared to 44.9 in the urban areas.
• The female WPR is estimated to be 23.6 per cent at All India level as compared to the male WPR of 75.1 per cent.
• The unemployment rate is estimated to be 3.8 per cent at All India level.
• In rural areas, unemployment rate is 3.4 per cent whereas in urban areas, the same is 5.0 per cent.
• Despite relatively low LFPR, the unemployment rate is significantly higher among females as compared to males. At all India level, the female unemployment rate is estimated to be 6.9 per cent whereas for males, the unemployment rate is 2.9 per cent.
• The female unemployment rate is estimated to be 12.5 per cent in urban areas and 5.6 percent in rural areas at All India level. Similar rates of unemployment for males work out to be 3.4 per cent in urban areas and 2.7 per cent in rural areas.
• The unemployment rates in respect of social groups considered to be at disadvantage are lower than the unemployment rate in respect of the general category. The unemployment rate in respect of Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes is estimated to be 3.2 per cent, for Scheduled Tribes, it is 2.6 percent and for General category it is 5.5 percent.
• Majority of the employed persons are found to be self employed. Under usual principal status approach, 48.6 per cent persons are estimated to be self employed followed by 19.7 per cent persons as wage/salary earners and rest 31.7 per cent persons belong to casual labour category at all India level.
• At All India level, majority of the employed persons .i.e. 52.9 percent are engaged in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry and fishing) followed by 27.8 per cent the tertiary or services sector and 19.3 per cent persons in manufacturing and construction sector i.e. the secondary sector.
As per the results of the Survey, estimated unemployment rate among the illiterate persons aged 15 years and above based on Usual Principal Status was 1.2 per cent as compared to 9.4 per cent among the graduates during 2010-2011.
Government have taken several steps to reduce unemployment in the country. The focus is on creation of productive employment at a faster pace in order to raise incomes of masses to bring about a general improvement in their living conditions. The job opportunities are created on account of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), investment in infrastructure development, growth in exports etc. Government of India has also been implementing various employment generation programmes, such as, Swarana Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY); Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP); Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) besides entrepreneurial development programmes run by the Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises.