The issue of reform of the UN Security Council is being discussed in inter-governmental negotiations which started in the UN General Assembly in March 2009, mainly due to efforts by India and other like-minded countries. In December 2009, India was able to build support for upgrading the negotiations to text-based negotiations. So far, eight rounds of the inter-governmental negotiations have taken place. In these meetings, a large number of the Member States have expressed their preference for a reform model based on expansion in both the permanent and non-permanent categories of membership. The Chair of the inter-governmental negotiations is expected to call for the next round of negotiations soon.
India has working with other like-minded countries for building support among the UN membership for expansion of the UN Security Council in both categories of its membership as well as for India’s candidature for permanent membership of an expanded Security Council. As part of these efforts, India is a member of the G-4, along with Brazil, Germany and Japan. India is also a member of the L.69 Group of pro-reform developing countries, which have been engaged with the African Union (AU), the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and others to proactively push for early reforms of the Council.
Among the permanent members of the Security Council, UK, France, USA and Russia have supported the candidature of India for permanent membership of an expanded Council at the highest level. As regards China, in joint statements issued with India at the highest level, it has been mentioned that the Chinese side understands and supports India’s aspirations to play a greater role in the United Nations, including in the Security Council.
A large number of countries have supported India’s initiatives for reform of the Council as well as endorsed its candidature for permanent membership. This has been expressed in various forms and fora including in bilateral discussions with the Government of India. India’s performance as a non-permanent member of the Security Council during 2011-2012 has also significantly strengthened India’s claim to permanent membership. However, a pre-requisite for India being considered for permanent membership of the UNSC is an agreement being reached among the UN membership on the nature and size of expansion of the Security Council, in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter. Accordingly, India has been actively making efforts to build support among the UN Member States for an urgent reform and expansion of the Security Council in both permanent and non-permanent categories of its membership